Deciphering the distinction between independent contractors and employees can often be unclear. To ascertain an individual’s classification, both the courts and the Canada Revenue Agency (CRA) employ various factors and tests.
One crucial point to bear in mind is that being labeled as an independent contractor by an employer does not necessarily mean that, according to the law, the individual truly holds that status. Some employers may designate workers as independent contractors to reduce their remittance obligations, such as CPP, EI, and Income Tax withholdings. Nevertheless, lack of understanding of the law does not excuse an employer from fulfilling their obligations.
Factors Considered by CRA and Courts in Determining Status In the process of determining whether someone is an independent contractor or an employee, the CRA and courts take into account the following factors:
- Nature of the Relationship: Is there a contract for service for a limited duration?
- Degree of Control: Can the individual work for other entities and set their own working hours?
- Ownership of Tools: Does the worker use their tools, or do they belong to the employer?
- Opportunity for Profit or Risk of Loss: If a job takes longer or costs more than anticipated, who bears the consequences? Independent contractors often shoulder such risks and uncertainties, while employees are typically insulated from them.
Self-employed individuals usually have the chance to reap profits or endure losses as they have the freedom to pursue and accept contracts, negotiate prices, and offer their services to multiple payers. They also incur expenses related to fulfilling contracts and manage them to maximize earnings. In contrast, employees are paid on a stable basis, regardless of project outcomes or employer miscalculations. Employers usually cover the costs of employee training and development, which is not the case for independent contractors.
Penalties for Misclassification Misclassifying an employee as an independent contractor can result in severe penalties for employers. They may be liable to provide retroactive pay, vacation pay, overtime pay, and unpaid taxes to the government. It is vital for employers to correctly determine whether a worker is an independent contractor or an employee to avoid such repercussions.
Advantages of Being an Employee vs. Independent Contractor Employees enjoy several advantages, including job security, being paid at least a minimum wage, and entitlement to employment insurance and employer benefits like vacation pay and other benefits. Employees also have less administrative responsibilities since their employers handle CPP, EI, and income tax deductions.
Benefits of Being an Independent Contractor vs. Employee Independent contractors, on the other hand, experience certain benefits such as greater flexibility and the ability to claim more expenses than employees. They have the freedom to choose whom they work for and when they work (subject to contractual commitments). They can also enlist other parties to assist or handle the work entirely. Additionally, independent contractors may retain intellectual property and copyright rights over the work they create, which is not typically the case for employees.
Offering the Choice to Individuals Some companies are now offering workers the option to select whether they prefer to be classified as independent contractors or employees. In some cases, companies may even provide higher compensation to those who choose the independent contractor status. Regardless of the chosen status, it is crucial for individuals to fully understand the terms of the contract they are being asked to sign, and seeking legal advice can be beneficial in this regard.